Angioedema is localized attacks that occur in certain areas of the body, such as the head, neck, face, lips, mouth, pharynx, larynx, and abdomen, as a result of fluid leakage from blood vessels, causing pain in these areas of the body, angioedema occurs from 12 to 36 hours, ends after three days, and can lead to death, as a result of complete obstruction of the airways.
Types of angioedema: hereditary angioedema type 3 and more
The usual causes are allergies when using new drugs, eating new foods, and developing new perfumes.
However, food or drugs used in the past without problems can cause allergies at a later time.
Types of angioedema
Acute allergic angioedema:
Acute allergic angioedema is the most common type of edema and it occurs as a result of an allergic reaction.
With this type of angioedema, the cells responsible for protecting the body mistakenly recognize some harmless external substances, such as food or drugs, as harmful.
It begins to produce defensive chemicals to attack these foreign substances.
Chemical reactions in the victim’s body lead to angioedema and cause puffiness of the skin.
Non Allergic angioedema:
Non Allergic angioedema occurs due to the interaction of drugs such as enzyme inhibitors and other drugs such as angiotensin converting (ACE).
This type can vary from weeks to months after the medication is first taken.
Hereditary angioedema (HAE):
Genetic abnormalities cause a deficiency of the C1 protein, which leads to angioedema
There are three types of angioedema:
hereditary angioedema type 1:
This is the most common type of hereditary angioedema.It appears in about 80 percent of people with hereditary angioedema.
C1 inhibitor levels decrease in people with this type of angioedema.Due to a mutation in C1, it is known that most people with hereditary angioedema of this first type have a family history of the disease.
However, type 1 angioedema can occur as a result of spontaneous mutations.
hereditary angioedema type 2:
This type differs from hereditary angioedema type 3 in:
This type of angioedema appears in 15-20 percent of affected cases.
It may also occur as a result of mutations in SERPING1, but in this case, the mutations cause a dysfunction of the C1 inhibitor.
hereditary angioedema type 3:
It is hereditary angioedema and affects women only.
Hereditary angioedema is a hereditary disorder that appears as occasional localized swelling that includes the submucosal tissues of the upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, subcutaneous, face, extremities, and genitals.
Hereditary angioedema type 3 differs from types 1 and 2 in the concentration and function of the natural C1 esterase inhibitor.
They cause exacerbation by high levels of estrogen, such as treatment with oral contraceptives or during pregnancy.
This means that the cause is unknown, idiopathic edema is most common in young women in their 20s and 30s, but it is most likely due to weight gain, diabetes, and emotional problems.
Symptoms of angioedema
Edema symptoms vary depending on the underlying cause, in general, the symptoms may be as follows:
1- Swelling in the body (swelling in the face, especially around the eyes, in the hands, and the feet)
And stretching and shining of the skin.
2- Swelling of the legs or feet that make it difficult for you to walk.
3- Difficulty wearing socks or shoes.
4- Weight gain due to fluid retention.
5- The skin does not return to its normal position after pressing it for several seconds.
6- In later cases of the disease, a blockage of the airways can occur, and in some cases, this may lead to death.
Causes of angioedema
Excessive intake of salt:
Following an unhealthy diet, and eating a lot of salty foods can cause the body to retain fluids, which leads to edema.
Sitting or standing for a long time:
Long flights by plane or riding in a car may cause swelling of the leg and ankle, sitting or standing for long periods as part of your work may also lead to edema.
Most pregnant women develop edema and it is in the hands, feet, and face because the pregnant woman keeps additional fluid needed by the fetus, this condition is temporary and disappears after birth.
Edema can be a side effect of many drugs and medications, usually because it involves increased water retention, drugs that may cause smack edema.
Treatment of angioedema
A doctor needs to determine the cause of the edema so that it can be treated properly.
If the edema is due to a disease, the disease must be treated.
Edema caused by lifestyle or temporary conditions often can be treated by:
1- Eat healthy foods, and avoid foods high in salt.
2- Drink enough water.
3- Raise the leg (or arm) above the level of your heart several times a day.
4- If you have to sit or stand for long periods, take breaks.
5- Wearing compression stockings on the affected legs.
6- Sleeping with a pillow under the leg.
7- Avoid smoking.
8- Massage the affected area to gently push the fluid toward your heart.
9- Exercise. A doctor or physical therapist can suggest specific exercises that can help prevent swelling due to inactivity.
11- Use a diuretic medication if the doctor prescribes it for you.
Finally, all patients with hereditary angioedema type 3 or any other type should have a treatment plan that fits the individual needs of each of them, to be carefully developed to suit their needs and lifestyle. Treatment plans appropriate to individual needs must take into account both preventive measures, home care and self-control, as well as an effective emergency treatment plan (as needed) with clear instructions on how best to use medications to treat angioedema attacks.