Eastern equine encephalitis (Virus EEE)

EEE virus, or Triple E virus, is a very rare viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes infected with this virus and is called EEE mosquito.
The deadly mosquito virus EEE can cause EEE encephalitis, about 5-10 EEE cases are reported annually in America.
Eastern equine encephalitis (Virus EEE)
Virus EEE was first discovered in the state of Massachusetts, the United States, in 1831, after about 75 horses died of mysterious causes due to encephalitis. 
The virus is widely spread in North, Central, and South America, and the Caribbean.
Virus EEE 2020 has been detected in the eastern part of the United States, especially the coastal plains.

How do people become infected with the EEE virus?

Triple E virus is transmitted by infected EEE mosquito bites.
This disease is not transmitted directly between people.

Where and when did most cases of EEE occur?

Most of the EEE cases reported are in the Atlantic and Gulf Coast countries, and there are some cases reported in the Great Lakes region.
The deadly mosquito virus EEE is spreading
Significantly from late spring to early fall, however in subtropical regions (such as the Gulf countries), rare cases occur in winter.

Who is at risk of contracting the EEE virus?

Anyone can be infected with the EEE virus if they live in an area where the virus is spreading.
The chances of contracting Triple E virus are higher for people who live or work in outdoor activities around wooded swamp areas in the eastern United States.

When do people get sick after being bitten by an EEE mosquito?

The incubation period for EEE can be between 4 to 10 days, the disease develops either systematically or cerebral, depending on the person’s age.
Encephalitis causes swelling in the brain and it can be asymptomatic, and systemic illness occurs very suddenly.
People with systemic illness usually recover within one to two weeks.
Encephalitis is more common in infants, but it usually occurs after systemic disease. 
EEE virus symptoms:
-High fever.
-Changed mental state.
-Meningeal headache and irritation.

Seizures occurring 3-10 days after an EEE mosquito bite

The effect of the Deadly mosquito virus EEE on the brain can make patients suffer mental and physical disabilities even after recovery from illness, such as personality disorders, paralysis, seizures, and mental weakness.

What are EEE virus symptoms?

Most people who contract EEE do not have symptoms but there may be mild symptoms such as fever, joint, or muscle pain.
For severe cases of EEE infection, it leads to encephalitis (swelling of the brain) or meningitis (swelling of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord). These cases begin with the sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, and vomiting.
The disease progresses to confusion, seizures, and coma. A third of patients with encephalitis due to EEE infection may die, and the rest of them recover but may experience mild to severe brain damage.

How is the EEE virus diagnosed?

Diagnosis is based on blood or cerebrospinal fluid tests. 
Tests are usually done on the antibodies that the body makes (ie in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid) against the viral infection.

The treatment of EEE virus

No specific treatment has been found for virus EEE, the antibiotics used are not effective against viruses, and there are no effective drugs.
Severe viral diseases are treated with supportive treatment, respiratory support, intravenous fluids, as well as prevention of other infections.

How can I reduce the chance of infection with EEE virus?

Stay away from mosquito breeding places to avoid mosquito bites.
There is no approved vaccine for non-infected people or preventive medicine.
Use insecticides containing DEET, picaridin, IR3535, or lemon eucalyptus oil on skin or clothing.
Permethrin repellent/insecticide can also be used on clothing for protection.
Avoid wearing shorts and shirts.
Put safe barriers on windows and doors to prevent mosquitoes from entering.
Get rid of standing water in flower pots, buckets, barrels, and other containers.
Keep designated swimming pools empty.

What do I do if a family member becomes infected with the EEE virus?

If you suspect that a family member has an EEE virus, you should consult a doctor directly to diagnose the condition.

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